From a developer’s point of view, the largest change in Python 3
is the handling of strings.
In Python 2, the
str type was used for two different kinds of values –
text and bytes, whereas in Python 3, these are separate and incompatible types.
Text contains human-readable messages, represented as a sequence of Unicode codepoints. Usually, it does not contain unprintable control characters such as
This type is available as
strin Python 3, and
unicodein Python 2.
In code, we will refer to this type as
unicode– a short, unambiguous name, although one that is not built-in in Python 3. Some projects refer to it as
six.text_type(from the six library).
Bytes or bytestring is a binary serialization format suitable for storing data on disk or sending it over the wire. It is a sequence of integers between 0 and 255. Most data – images, sound, configuration info, or text – can be serialized (encoded) to bytes and deserialized (decoded) from bytes, using an appropriate protocol such as PNG, VAW, JSON or UTF-8.
In both Python 2.6+ and 3, this type is available as
Ideally, every “stringy” value will explicitly and unambiguously be one of these types (or the native string, below). This means that you need to go through the entire codebase, and decide which value is what type. Unfortunately, this process generally cannot be automated.
We recommend replacing the word “string” in developer documentation (including docstrings and comments) with either “text”/“text string” or “bytes”/“byte string”, as appropriate.
The Native String¶
Additionally, code that supports both Python 2 and 3 in the same codebase can use what is conceptually a third type:
- The native string (
str) – text in Python 3, bytes in Python 2
__repr__ methods and code that deals with
Python language objects (such as attribute/function names) will always need to
use the native string, because that is what each version of Python uses
for internal text-like data.
Developer-oriented texts, such as exception messages, could also be native
For other data, you should only use the native string if all of the following hold:
- you are working with textual data,
- Under Python 2, each “native string” value has a single well-defined
- you do not mix native strings with either bytes or text – always encode/decode diligently when converting to these types.
Native strings affect the semantics under Python 2 as little as possible, while not requiring the resulting Python 3 API to feel bad. But, having a third incompatible type makes the porting process harder. Native strings are suitable mostly for conservative projects, where ensuring stability under Python 2 justifies extra porting effort.
Conversion between text and bytes¶
It is possible to
encode() text to binary data, or
decode() bytes into a text string, using a particular encoding.
By itself, a bytes object has no inherent encoding, so it is not possible
to encode/decode without knowing the encoding.
It’s similar to images: an open image file might be encoded in PNG, JPG, or another image format, so it’s not possible to “just read” the file without either relying on external data (such as the filename), or effectively trying all alternatives. Unlike images, one bytestring can often be successfully decoded using more than one encoding.
Never assume a text encoding without consulting relevant documentation and/or researching a string’s use cases. If an encoding for a particular use case is determined, document it. For example, a function docstring can specify that some argument is “a bytestring holding UTF-8-encoded text data”, or module documentation may clarify that „as per RFC 4514, LDAP attribute names are encoded to UTF-8 for transmission“.
Some common text encodings are:
UTF-8: A widely used encoding that can encode any Unicode text, using one to four bytes per character.
UTF-16: Used in some APIs, most notably Windows and Java ones. Can also encode the entire Unicode character set, but uses two to four bytes per character.
ascii: A 7-bit (128-character) encoding, useful for some machine-readable identifiers such as hostnames (
'python.org'), or textual representations of numbers (
'127.0.0.1'). Always check the relevant standard/protocol/documentation before assuming a string can only ever be pure ASCII.
locale.getpreferredencoding(): The “preferred encoding” for command-line arguments, environment variables, and terminal input/output.
If you are choosing an encoding to use – for example, your application
defines a file format rather than using a format standardized externally –
And whatever your choice is, explicitly document it.
Conversion to text¶
There is no built-in function that converts to text in both Python versions.
The six library provides
six.text_type, which is fine if it
appears once or twice in uncomplicated code.
For better readability, we recommend using
which is unambiguous and clear, but it needs to be introduced with the
following code at the beginning of a file:
try: # Python 2: "unicode" is built-in unicode except NameError: unicode = str
Conversion to bytes¶
There is no good function that converts an arbitrary object to bytes,
as this operation does not make sense on arbitrary objects.
Depending on what you need, explicitly use a serialization function
pickle.dumps()), or convert to text and encode the text.
- Fixer: None
- Prevalence: Very common
Quoted string literals can be prefixed with
u to get bytes or
These prefixes work both in Python 2 (2.6+) and 3 (3.3+).
Literals without these prefixes result in native strings.
In Python 3, the
u prefix does nothing; it is only allowed for backwards
b prefix does nothing in Python 2.
u prefix to all strings, unless a native string
Unfortunately, the choice between text and bytes cannot generally be automated.
Raw Unicode strings¶
- Fixer: None
- Prevalence: Rare
In Python 2, the
r prefix could be combined with
u to avoid processing
However, this did not turn off processing Unicode escapes (
\U........), as the
u prefix took precedence over
>>> print u"\x23☺\u2744" # Python 2 with Encoding: UTF-8 #☺❄ >>> print ur"\x23☺\u2744" # Python 2 with Encoding: UTF-8 \x23☺❄
This may be confusing at first.
Keeping this would be even more confusing in Python 3, where the
is a no-op with backwards-compatible behavior.
Python 3 avoids the choice between confusing or backwards-incompatible
semantics by forbidding
ur prefix in string literals.
The most straightforward way to do this is to use plain
\\ for a literal backslash:
>>> print(u"\\x23☺\u2744") \x23☺❄
In Python 3, text and bytes cannot be mixed. For example, these are all illegal:
b'one' + 'two' b', '.join(['one', 'two']) import re pattern = re.compile(b'a+') pattern.match('aaaaaa')
Encode or decode the data to make the types match.
python-modernize -wnf libmodernize.fixes.fix_basestring
- Prevalence: Rare
unicode types in Python 2 could be used
interchangeably, it sometimes didn’t matter which of the types a particular
value had. For these cases, Python 2 provided the class
from which both
if isinstance(value, basestring): print("It's stringy!")
In Python 3, the concept of
basestring makes no sense: text is only
For type-checking text strings in code compatible with both versions, the
six library offers
string_types, which is
in Python 2 and
(str,) in Python 3.
The above code can be replaced by:
import six if isinstance(value, six.string_types): print("It's stringy!")
The recommended fixer will import
six and replace any uses of
python-modernize -wnf libmodernize.fixes.fix_open
- Prevalence: Common
In Python 2, reading from a file opened by
open() yielded the generic
In Python 3, the type of file contents depends on the mode the file was opened
with. By default, this is text strings;
b in mode selects bytes:
with open('/etc/passwd') as f: f.read() # text with open('/bin/sh', 'rb') as f: f.read() # bytes
On disk, all files are stored as bytes.
For text-mode files, their content is decoded automatically.
The default encoding is
locale.getpreferredencoding(False), but this might
not always be appropriate, and may cause different behavior across systems.
If the encoding of a file is known, we recommend always specifying it:
with open('data.txt', encoding='utf-8') as f: f.read()
Similar considerations apply when writing to files.
The behavior of
open is quite different between Python 2 and 3.
However, from Python 2.6 on, the Python 3 version is available in the
We recommend replacing the built-in
open function with
and using the new semantics – that is, text files contain
from io import open with open('data.txt', encoding='utf-8') as f: f.read()
Note that under Python 2, the object returned by
io.open has a different
type than that returned by
If your code does strict type checking, consult the notes on the
The recommended fixer will add the
from io import open import, but it
will not add
We recommend adding them manually if the encoding is known.
When everything is ported and tests are passing, it is a good idea to make sure your code handles strings correctly – even in unusual situations.
Many of the tests recommended below exercise behavior that “works” in Python 2 (does not raise an exception – but may produce subtly wrong results), while a Python 3 version will involve more thought and code.
You might discover mistakes in how the Python 2 version processes strings. In these cases, it might be a good idea to enable new tests for Python 3 only: if some bugs in edge cases survived so far, they can probably live until Python 2 is retired. Apply your own judgement.
Things to test follow.
Ensure that your software works (or, if appropriate, fails cleanly) with non-ASCII input, especially input from end-users. Example characters to check are:
é ñ ü Đ ř ů Å ß ç ı İ(from European personal names)
Ａ ﬄ ℚ ½(alternate forms and ligatures)
€ ₹ ¥(currency symbols)
Ж η 글 ओ କ じ 字(various scripts)
🐍 💖 ♒ ♘(symbols and emoji)
Encodings and locales¶
If your software handles multiple text encodings, or handles user-specified encodings, make sure this capability is well-tested.
Under Linux, run your software with the
LC_ALL environment variable
C and to
tr_TR.utf8. Check handling of any command-line
arguments and environment variables that may contain non-ASCII characters.
Test how the code handles invalid text input. If your software deals with files, try it a on non-UTF8 filename.
Using Python 3, such a file can be created by:
with open(b'bad-\xFF-filename', 'wb') as file: file.write(b'binary-\xFF-data')